Sanctuary is the name of that part of the Temple and also of the Tabernacle that was set apart for the LORD*. It consisted of two rooms, the first being the Holy Place. The Holy Place held the Menorah, the table of the Bread of the Presence and the Incense Altar. This was where the priests ministered daily to the LORD*. To enter the Holy Place the priest needed to be sanctified first. Any priest entering the Holy Place who had not already dealt with sin would have been struck dead at the doorway. (Exod. 28:42,43)

The second, or inner room, was called the Holy of Holies or the Most Holy Place. The Holy of Holies held only the Ark of the Covenant except on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, when the Altar of Incense was placed in it. Only the High Priest could enter and he could only enter on Yom Kippur. In this room the High Priest interceded for the people, for the LORD* to forgive their sins and his sins.

The Temple had an outer court where sinners, even heathens, were welcome and an inner court, which had the altar where people would deal with sin. Only a priest could enter the Sanctuary and then only after he had dealt with sin, by making the appropriate offerings, immersing, and wearing the holy garments.

Jn. 2:18. Therefore the Jewish leaders answered and said to Him, “What sign are You showing us seeing that You do these things?” 19. Y’shua answered and said to them, “You must destroy this Sanctuary and in three days I shall raise it.” 20. Therefore the Jewish leaders said, “This Sanctuary was built in forty-six years, and You will raise it in three days?” 21. But He was talking about the Sanctuary of His body. In Jn. 2:19-21, He did not say “Temple” but He said “Sanctuary.” Most translations say Temple, but Sanctuary is correct. The Greek word is naos, meaning Sanctuary. The word for temple is hieron.[1] No one can deny that Y’shua’s body was without sin and was holy.

We too have bodies that are sanctified by the blood of the Lamb, so our bodies are called sanctuaries. We are not to be like the Temple or Tabernacle, with an area where sin is welcome. This is why Paul wrote that our bodies are sanctuaries of the Holy Spirit in I Cor. 3:16,17; 6:19, 2 Cor. 6:16, and why John was told to exclude the outer court when he measured the Sanctuary, Rev. 11:2. Psalm 119:48 says I shall also lift up my hands for Your commandments.. The rabbinic commentary on that says that lifting your hands means to practice, to do, His commandments. Ps. 134:2 repeats that theme.

An interesting point is that in the Gospels and Acts there are many references to the Temple, but after those books the word hieron, for temple, is only used one time. That is in I Cor. 9:13 in a reference to the Temple. So, from the book of Romans on, now you know that with one exception wherever you see the word Temple in another translation the author was actually talking about the Sanctuary. Now you also know that your body is a Sanctuary, requiring you to walk in repentance every day, because sin must be dealt with prior to entering the Sanctuary.

Satan. The Hebrew language has two spellings for Satan, seen-tet-nun, and samech-tet-nun. The former is the one used in Scripture, in Num. 22:22,32, 1 Sam. 29:4, 2 Sam. 19:22, 1 Ki. 5:4; 11:14,23,25, Zech. 3:1,2, Ps. 109:6, Job 1:6,7,8,9,12; 2:1,2,3,4,6,7, and 1 Chr. 21:1. The latter spelling, samech-tet-nun, which does not appear in Scripture, means slander, slanderer, accuser. The former means adversary, archenemy, foe, devil, the Evil One, and hinderer, accuser. The verb form means to hate, denounce, condemn, speak against and is used several times in Scripture. The difference between these words is not great, but it is significant that Scripture uses the stronger word because it includes, but is not limited to, accusing, but goes far beyond that in actively pursuing evil ends.

Creatures, including the dragon and serpent of Revelation, symbolize the results of Satan’s endeavors. In Isa. 27:1 those symbols are called Leviathan referring to the evils of the modern world.

Saul’s Two Year Reign, stated in 1 Samuel 13:1. In the first year of Saul’s reign, after he became king, and he reigned two years over Israel.. Since this conflicts with Acts 13:21. And afterward they asked for a king and God gave them Saul son of Kish, a man from the tribe of Benjamin, for forty years.. Which dating do we accept? Other Scriptures in the books of Samuel confirm the two year time.

1 Sam. 7:1 And the men of Kiriat Jearim came and brought back the Ark of the LORD*, and brought it into the house of Abinadab on the hill and sanctified Elazar his son to keep the Ark of the LORD*. 2. And it was, while the Ark remained in Kiriat Jearim, that the time was long, for it was twenty years. And the entire House of Israel mourned after, submitted to, the LORD*. The Ark was in the house of Abinidab during the entire judgeship of Samuel, the reign of Saul, and the first seven and a half years of David’s reign, so obviously Saul could not have reigned for forty years.

After the Ark’s capture by the Philistines at the end of Eli’s judging Israel, the Philistines only kept it for seven months. 1 Sam. 6:1 And the Ark of the LORD* was in the country of the Philistines seven months. 2. And the Philistines called for the priests and the diviners saying, What will we do with the Ark of the LORD*? Tell us how we will send it to its place. 3. And they said, If you send away the Ark of the God of Israel, do not send it empty! But in any way return Him a trespass offering, then you will be healed and it will be known to you why His hand is not removed from you.

6:4. Then they said, What will be the guilt offering which we will return to Him? They an¬swered, Five golden piles and five golden mice, according to the number of the leaders of the Philistines, for one plague was on you all and on your leaders. 5. Therefore you will make images of your piles and images of your mice that damage the land and you will give glory to the God of Israel. Perhaps He will lighten His hand from off you and from off your gods and from off your land. 6. Why then do you harden your hearts, as the Egyptians and Pharaoh hardened their hearts? When He had wrought wonderfully among them, did they not let the people go and they departed? 7. Now therefore make a new cart and take two milk cows on which there has come no yoke, and tie the cows to the cart and bring their calves home from them. 8. And take the Ark of the LORD* and lay it on the cart, and put jewels of gold, which you return to Him for a guilt offering, in a coffer by its side and send it away, so it can go. 9. And see; if it goes by the way of its own border to Beit Shemesh, He has done us this great evil, but if not, then we will know that it is not His hand that struck us, it was a chance that happened to us.

6:10. And the men did so and took two milk cows and tied them to the cart and shut up their calves at home. 11. And they laid the Ark of the LORD* on the cart and the box with the mice of gold and the images of their piles. 12. And the cows took the straight way to the way of Beit Shemesh, going along the highway, lowing as they went and did not turn aside to the right hand or to the left, and the leaders of the Philistines followed them to the border of Beit Shemesh.

6:13. And those of Beit Shemesh were reaping their wheat harvest in the valley, and they lifted up their eyes and saw the Ark and rejoiced to see it. 14. And the cart came into the field of Joshua, a Beit-Shemite, and stood there, where there was a great stone. And they cut the wood of the cart and offered the cows, a burnt ¬offering to the LORD*. 15. And the Levites took down the Ark of the LORD* and the box that was with it, in which were the jewels of gold, and put them on the great stone and the men of Beit Shemesh offered burnt offerings and sacrificed sacrifices the same day to the LORD*.

6:16. And when the five leaders of the Philistines had seen it, they returned to Ekron the same day.

David’s seven and a half years while the Ark remained in the house of Abinadab are detailed in 2 Sam. 5:4. David was thirty years old when he began to reign, he reigned forty years. 5. In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty-three years over all Israel and Judah.

Because Samuel grew old before anointing Saul, we can estimate roughly ten plus years for his term of judging Israel, with two years for Saul, and seven and half plus for David’s share of the twenty years for the ark’s being in the house of Abinadab.

While Samuel’s age is not known, Scripture says he is old. 1 Sam. 8:1. And it was, when Samuel was old,  that he made his sons judges over Israel. 2. Now the name of his firstborn was Joel, and the name of his second, Abijah.  They were judges in Beer Sheba. 3. But his sons did not walk in his ways, but turned aside after unjust gain and took bribes and perverted justice. That his sons followed in the footsteps of Eli’s sons must have contributed to the people’s plea for a king, which is another story. For now we see that Saul’s reign was indeed about two years.

Sea of Galilee is the phrase we are used to. However it is a lake, a body of fresh water that supplies most of Israel’s drinking water, about 15 miles long by
7 miles wide. The Greek word thalassa is translated sea in the traditional English translations. Thalassa was used by the Jewish translators of the Septuagint, from Hebrew to Greek, to translate lake. Since the first New Testament translations into English were made from the Latin text, Sea was the proper translation of the Latin Mare. In the New Testament four names, Galilee, Kinneret, Tiberias, and Genesseret refer to the lake.

Seasons of the LORD* The seasons[2] described here are the Scriptural seasons that Y’shua, and all the New Testament authors, celebrated. There is not one word in the New Testament suggesting that the Church should stop honoring these holy days. The fourth century church for various reasons brought about the changes by introducing Easter, which was the celebration of the fertility goddess Ishtar in Syria and Babylon. Christmas substituted for the Roman winter solstice celebration of the Roman god, Saturn. These times of the Lord, Seasons, are listed in Leviticus 23, with the first one listed being the Sabbath.

Sabbath, Shabbat in Hebrew, can have different meanings when it is plural. The plural is Shabbatot in Hebrew and can refer to a feast day Shabbat, multiple Sabbaths, or weeks. The feast day Shabbat does not have the prohibition of all work. On those days it is permissible to cook and do chores, but not to go to a regular job. See Preparation Day elsewhere in Glossary.

The plural can also mean that something happened regularly on the Sabbath, as when Y’shua taught in the synagogues on the Sabbaths. When the plural is used it is not always clear which meaning to apply. For instance in Mk. 2:23 the disciples were plucking grain on a particular day but the Pharisees called that to Y’shua’s attention using the plural, Sabbaths. This could have been Shavuot, which is the time of the wheat harvest. This would not have been against the Scriptural admonitions in Leviticus 23, but just against the Pharisees’ code. In the Sabbath year it was permissible to pick a day’s need, but not to harvest.

It is important to remember that for all the Jewish people the day starts at sundown. The Sabbath starts at sundown one day and ends at sundown the following day. Two hours after sundown ends a Sabbath there is a service called Havdalah which returns the congregation to the secular world from the holy day that is completely dedicated to the LORD*. After this service money can be discussed and handled, but during the Sabbath money cannot be used or discussed.

There is nothing in the New Testament to indicate that the Sabbath was changed from the Jewish day of Friday sundown to Saturday sundown. Understanding the Havdalah is key to proper understanding of the New Testament.

Y’shua was criticized for doing things that should not be done on the Sabbath, but He never did anything on a Sabbath that is prohibited in Scripture. The fourth commandment, given in Exod. 20:8, says to keep the Sabbath holy and to do no work on it. This prohibition against work was taken by the Pharisees and others to include healing in the definition of work, but to heal on the Sabbath is not prohibited in Scripture. Jer. 17:21 includes the admonition, Thus says the LORD*, Take heed for yourselves! Do not bear a burden on the Sabbath or bring it in by the gates of Jerusalem! 22. Do not carry a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath, or do any work, but sanctify the Sabbath, as I commanded your fathers. Y’shua gave some indication of what constitutes a large load in Jn. 5:10,11 when He told the lame man to carry his pallet. Carrying things at some point becomes work, which is forbidden. Some legalists have defined “burden” as something as small as a handkerchief. We are not to set arbitrary rules to define such things, but go by the spirit. The purpose for not carrying burdens on the Sabbath is related to buying and selling, but obviously work enters the equation because a large load is definitely work. Each of these definitions is to be an individual decision, made in an attitude of prayer. Scriptures giving the prohibitions for the Sabbath are: Exod. 20:8-11; 35:3, Jer. 17:21, Neh. 10:32; 13:15.

Isa. 58:13,14 says, If you turn away your foot from the Sabbath, from doing your pleasure on My holy day, and will call the Sabbath a delight, the holy of the LORD* honorable, and will honor Him, not doing your own ways, or finding your own pleasure, or speaking your own words, 14. then you will delight yourself in the LORD* and I shall cause you to ride upon the high places of the earth, and will feed you with the heritage of Jacob your father: for the mouth of the LORD* has spoken.

Havdalah is the name of the service at the beginning of the day after the Sabbath. Havdalah means separation in Hebrew. One hour after sundown ends the Sabbath, there is a service at the synagogue to make the transition back to the secular workday. The one-hour delay is to be absolutely certain that the Sabbath is over, no fudging allowed. Some congregations make that a two-hour delay. After the Havdalah service money can be discussed and used because the worshippers have returned from their separation with God to the secular, work-a-day world. It was after a Havdalah service that Paul instructed the Corinthians
(1 Cor. 16:2) to set aside their money. The Havdalah service is also the reason Paul spoke so late in Troas, when Eutuchus fell out the window (Acts 20:7).

Passover is the name of the celebration of the release of the children of Israel from Egyptian bondage. It is celebrated with a feast called Seder, the evening meal that teaches God’s miraculous deliverance from Egyptian bondage. Y’shua, the disciples, and every author of the New Testament celebrated Passover. In the year 196 AD the celebration of Passover was replaced with the worship of Ishtar, the Babylonian fertility goddess. The name Ishtar was written in Greek as Istar because there is no “sh” sound in the Greek language. Because the Greek and Latin letters for I are pronounced EE, Istar became Easter when spelled with English letters. The celebration of Ishtar brought with it eggs and rabbits, symbols of reproduction. This was done to separate from Jewish roots and to make it easier for heathens to become Christian by letting them retain the pagan customs.

Seder is the name of the Passover meal. This meal may be called a feast but it really is a modest meal, frequently featuring roast chicken and, although ample, never the overeating many Americans associate with Thanksgiving dinners. Seder means order and is a reminder of the Passover meal eaten in Egypt at the deliverance of the chosen people from bondage as Egyptian slaves. To start the Seder a cup of wine is raised and a blessing recited to sanctify the table so it can serve as the altar for the evening’s service. This cup is called the Kiddush, which means Sanctification and is seen in Lk. 22:17. The blessing over the meal is referred to in Lk. 22:19 when Y’shua raised the bread. Each blessing He said started “Blessed are You O Lord our God King of the Universe..” The blessing over the bread continued with: “Who brings forth bread from the Earth.” Bread in this context means everything we need. A second cup of wine is drunk during the meal.

Before eating, the story of the Exodus is told, then after the meal songs are sung glorifying God and blessing Israel. Included in these songs are the Hallel, Psalms 113-118. There is a third cup taken after the meal, the one Y’shua lifted in Luke 22:20. The Seder closes with a fourth cup, the cup of Elijah, coming to announce the coming of Messiah. This cup is not drunk. A mini-Seder is held in every Orthodox Jewish home every Friday evening to welcome the Sabbath.

Exod. 6:6,7 set the pattern for the Seder, each cup representing a promise in those verses. These are referred to as the “Four expressions of Redemption,” described below.

Communion came out of this celebration. When taking communion we are renewing our covenant relationship with our Heavenly Father, each of us saying in effect, “Everything I have is yours.”

Cup 1. I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. This is the promise to remove the children of Israel from their bondage of heavy labor. This first cup of wine is called the Kiddush, meaning the sanctification. Since the Seder is a family gathering, the Kiddush sanctifies the family table so the table can serve as the family’s altar for the evening’s celebration. This was the cup that Y’shua drank in Lk. 22:17 and the blessing He said in Hebrew as He gave thanks is translated “Blessed are You, Lord our God, King of the Universe, Who creates the fruit of the vine.” This is the same blessing said in the Kiddush today in Jewish homes and synagogues around the world.

Cup 2. and I will rescue, deliver, you from their bondage.. tells of the exit from Egypt, from the slavery. Some translations say “I shall save..” but deliverance is the primary meaning of the Hebrew and for Christians this is an interesting parallel that should be in the walk of each of us. As each receives the promise to be taken out of bondage and receives salvation by faith, the next step should be deliverance from all that bondage. Very few churches come through with deliverance, with the result that church after church is filled with the walking wounded. This is a cup that we surely need. This cup is drunk during the meal and represents our walk at this time. The blessing over the meal is what Y’shua would have said in Lk. 22:19, Blessed are You O Lord our God Who is bringing forth bread from the Earth.

Cup 3. I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.. Redemption came to Israel when they walked through the Red Sea. The only redeemer in Hebrew is the kinsman redeemer, the one who pays the price to redeem his kin. This is the cup that Y’shua drank in Lk. 22:20 when He said that this was the Renewed Covenant in His blood. Each time we take communion we are renewing our covenant with the King of the Universe.

Cup 4. and I will take you to Myself for a people, and I will be God to you and you will know that I AM the LORD* your God, Who brings you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. This represents the crossing of the Jordan into the Promised Land. Spiritually the fourth cup represents crossing into eternal life. It is called the cup of Elijah which is poured, but not drunk. It can only be drunk after Elijah comes heralding the return of Messiah and the beginning of the Messianic reign. Some rabbis have taught that there are five cups, by inserting one after the third cup, but before the cup of Elijah. The cup of Elijah announces the Messianic reign, but we have not yet had the Messianic reign bringing peace to all mankind, so we cannot yet drink the cup of Elijah.

When you take communion remember these cups and remember what the LORD* has done for you. This puts Paul’s admonition in 1 Cor. 11:17-26 in perspective. Verse 17. But when I give these instructions I do not praise you, because you come together, not for the better but for the worse. 18. For indeed to begin with when you gather in a congregation I hear there are divisions among you and I believe it in part. 19. For it is necessary there should even be dissension among you, so that also the proved ones would become revealed to you. 20. Therefore when you come together for this, it is not the Lord’s Supper you eat: 21. for each takes his own supper to eat beforehand, and indeed one is hungry and another is drunk. 22. Do you not have homes in which to eat and to drink? Or do you despise the congregation of God, and do you shame those who do not have enough? What could I say to you? Will I praise you? I do not praise you in this.

11:23. Now I received from the Lord, which I also gave over to you, that the Lord Y’shua, on the night in which He was betrayed, took bread 24. and after He gave thanks He broke it and said, ‘This is My body being given on your behalf: you must regularly do this in remembrance of Me.’ 25. Likewise also the cup after supper saying, ‘This cup is the Renewed Covenant by means of My blood: you must continually do this, as often as you would drink it, in remembrance of Me.’ 26. For as often as you would eat this bread and you would drink the cup, you are proclaiming publicly the death of the LORD* until He would come.

The cup after supper, the third cup, is the Cup of Redemption, with the grape juice or wine representing the blood of our kinsman Redeemer. We need to come in humility with repentant hearts, truly seeking to be better in the coming days than we have been so far, saying to the Lord “Everything I have is Yours.”

Unleavened Bread begins on Nissan 15, the day after Passover. This feast is symbolized by matzah bread, which is made without yeast. This unleavened bread is eaten throughout the entire seven days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

Today Passover and Unleavened Bread combined are often just called Passover. The emphasis of this feast is on freedom from bondage, the release from Egyptian bondage for the purpose of worshipping God.

The Rabbis teach that resurrection for judgment takes place during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Y’shua was resurrected during Unleavened Bread, on First Fruits. Please note that Judgment Day takes place several months later, on Rosh HaShannah, the Day of Memorial.

The First Fruit celebrations of the three harvest festivals are joyful, filled with thanksgiving. The quantities of produce brought were small; the offering of barley in Unleavened Bread was two quarts, for wheat at Shavuot it was two loaves, and for Sukkot a basket carried a family’s offering, although a king brought a basket that required two to carry. The significance is that the farmer offered to the LORD* the very first, not waiting for the best. Deut. 26:2 tells us the offering should be brought in a basket. Deut. 26:1. And it will be, when you have come in to the land which the LORD* your God gives you for an inheritance and possess it and live there, 2. that you will take of the first of all the fruit of the earth, which you will bring from your land that the LORD* your God gives you and put it in a basket and go to the place which the LORD* your God will choose to place His name there. 3. And you will go to the priest that will be in those days and say to him, I profess this day to the LORD* your God that I have come to the country which the LORD* swore to our fathers to give us. 4. And the priest will take the basket from your hand and set it down before the altar of the LORD* your God.

The offering was presented as described in Deut. 26:2, then the one presenting the offering would make this statement from Deut. 26:5. And you will speak and say before the LORD* your God, “My father was a wandering Aramean and he went down into Egypt and sojourned there with a few, and there became a nation, great, mighty, and populous. 6. And the Egyptians treated us ill and afflicted us, and laid hard bondage upon us. 7. And when we cried to the LORD* God of our fathers, the LORD* heard our voices, and looked on our affliction, our labor, and our oppression. 8. And the LORD* brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand, with an outstretched arm, with great fear, with signs, and with wonders. 9. And He has brought us into this place and has given us this land, a land that flows with milk and honey. 10. And now, behold, I have brought the First Fruits of the land which You, the LORD*, have given me.” And you will set it before the LORD* your God and worship before the LORD* your God,
11. and you will rejoice in every good thing which the LORD* your God has given to you and to your house, you, the Levite, and the stranger that is in your midst.
The quotation in verses 5-10 was repeated by each one bringing a First Fruits offering to the Temple.

The produce offered at First Fruits are defined in Deut. 8:8. A land of wheat, barley, (grape) vines, fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of olive oil and (date)-honey; These were the only crops offered for First Fruits. During the Feast of Unleavened Bread barley was the crop that was being harvested, so that is what would have been brought, although someone who had not been able to come to the previous First Fruits could bring that offering at the next First Fruits. The quantity brought was small; for the grain offering it was about two quarts of barley even though hundreds of bushels had been harvested by the farmer bringing the offering. What was significant was that this was the very first of the crop. This modest offering from just a few crops expresses commitment to God and thanksgiving to Him for His provision. The First Fruits offering belonged to the priest to whom it was presented. David organized the priests into twenty-four divisions (1 Chr. 24), with thousands of priests scattered over Israel, none drawing a salary, but depending on gifts from their shares of tithes and offerings.

Shavuot, pronounced Sha-VOO-ote, celebrates the wheat harvest. See First Fruits elsewhere in this Chapter. Lev. 23:15. And you will count for yourself from the next day after the Sabbath, (First Fruits) from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, seven weeks will be complete: 16. to the day after the seventh week you will number fifty days and you will offer a new grain offering to the LORD*. 17. You will bring out of your habitations two wave loaves of two tenths of an ephah. They will be of fine flour, they will be baked with leaven; they are the First Fruits to the LORD*. 18. And you will offer with the bread seven lambs without blemish of the first year and one young bull and two rams. They will be a burnt offering to the LORD*, with their grain offering and their drink offerings, an offering made by fire, of sweet savor to the LORD*. 19. Then you will sacrifice one he goat for a sin offering and two lambs of the first year for a sacrifice of peace offering. 20. And the priest will wave them with the bread of the First Fruits, a wave offering before the LORD* with the two lambs: they will be holy to the LORD* for the priest. 21. And you will proclaim on the selfsame day that it is a holy convocation for you, you will do no servile work. It will be a statute forever in all your dwellings throughout your generations. 22. And when you reap the harvest of your land, you will not wholly reap the corners of your field when you reap, neither will you gather any gleaning of your harvest. You will leave them for the poor and for the stranger. I AM the LORD* your God!

This commandment to leave the corners and not to glean is the only commandment in Leviticus 23 that deals with something other than these special days. The reason for this command is that this reminds the farmer that the crop is not his, but the LORD’s*.

This is the second First Fruits of the growing season, one of the three feasts men are commanded to attend. The date on our Julian/Gregorian calendars varies from year to year because the lunar calendar does not have fixed months. The month begins with the new moon and lasts twenty-nine or thirty days. Shavuot comes seven weeks plus one day after the First Fruits of Unleavened Bread. That is a total of fifty days, so Christians often refer to this as Pentecost, from the Greek word for fifty. While Shavuot is not named in the Gospels, there are two passages that could refer to it. These are Lk. 6:2 when the disciples pick grain on a Sabbath and Jn. 5:1 when Y’shua goes to an unnamed feast.

Counting the days between them ties the two First Fruits together, just as Y’shua ties His resurrection, ascension, and the giving of the immersion of the Holy Spirit at the Feast of Weeks.

Exod. 19:1 tells us that in the third month, the month of Shavuot, the people were at Sinai. The rest of the chapter tells how He gave the Torah to His people there. For this reason Weeks, Shavuot, also celebrates the giving of Torah. The emphasis on Torah brings to mind the statement ..You will have no other gods before Me. This means we must leave all our idols behind, which is hard to do in this materialistic, Nicolaiton, Humanist, pleasure-filled age. Old habits die hard, seen with the children of Israel in the wilderness, and in our focus on material things instead of doing the things Y’shua brings out in Matt. 25:35. For I was hungry and you gave Me to eat, I was thirsty and you gave Me to drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, 36. and I was poorly clothed and you clothed Me, I was sick and you visited Me, I was in prison and you came to Me.

Because in Exod. 19:8 all the people answering said, All that the LORD* has spoken we will do.. and this was on Shavuot; so this day is likened to a wedding, tying His people permanently to Him.

Shavuot is important for Christians because it ties deliverance and salvation celebrated at Passover with Y’shua’s crucifixion, to His resurrection on First Fruits of Unleavened Bread, His ascension forty days later, then His sending the immersion, saturation, of the Holy Spirit on the First Fruits of Shavuot. This gives us the power to live victorious lives to witness to all non-believers by the way we live.

The time of waiting for the immersion of the Holy Spirit parallels the Counting of the Omer, from the First Fruits of Unleavened Bread to the First Fruits of Shavuot. Just as the farmers could not use the wheat crop until the offering of the loaves, so also Y’shua, the Bread of Life, had to ascend before the rest of the grain, His disciples, could take the Holy Spirit and be used in such awesome power. After their immersion in the second chapter of Acts they healed the sick, delivered the oppressed, and raised the dead.

Rosh Hashanah, named Day of Memorial in Leviticus 23, is a call to repentance for believers to prepare for Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. This is not a feast, but a solemn call to repent. Now commonly called Rosh Hashanah, translated New Year, is looked on as the new year because of two verses in Exodus: 23:16 ..the Feast of Ingathering (Sukkot), in the end of the year.. and 34:22 ..the Feast of Ingathering at the year’s end.. identify it as such.

Yom Kippur, Day of Atonement, is not a feast, but a day of repentance, still of great significance for Christians. Paul makes the only New Testament mention of it when he refers to Yom Kippur in Acts 27:9, saying that the fast, Yom Kippur, had already gone by. Yom Kippur is important for Christians, not one of whom is perfect. We need to vow each year to be better the coming year than we were this past year.

Sukkot is frequently called the Feast of Tabernacles. A better English title would be Feast of Booths, which is the meaning of the title in Hebrew. This feast celebrates the fall harvest, with the third First Fruits of the growing season. (See First Fruits just after Unleavened Bread.) Lev. 23:39 ..on the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered the fruit of the land, you will keep a feast to the LORD* seven days: the first day will be a Sabbath and the eighth day will be a Sabbath. During Sukkot, the first day and the eighth day, (Shemini Atseret, see Jn. 7:37) are Sabbaths. During this feast each family builds a sukkah, or booth, outside the home, a flimsy structure of palm branches that provides shade, but not much else. A good rain will come right through the roof and walls. The family eats all its meals in the sukkah and the men are supposed to sleep in it. It is to be a room for visitors, even strangers, to come in and share stories and meals.

There is an inner connection between the names Gog and Magog and the feast, Sukkot. The Hebrew word, Gog, means roof, and there is a major difference between a real roof and the flimsy sukkah, the singular of Sukkot. The sukkah is a weak, unstable shelter made with branches. A driving rain will soak right through it. A driving wind will blow it away. People have the power to make themselves safe and secure against their earthly contemporaries by building sturdy walls, so they delude themselves into thinking that they can make themselves safe and secure against that which comes from above – against God and His power to direct matters. They think that they can find security in the protection of their own might, take their fate in their own hands, and crown the building of human greatness with sturdy roofs, with no need to depend on God.

The war of Gog and Magog is the battle of gog, the Hebrew word for roof, against sukkah, the fight of the roof-illusion, of human greatness which never allows rest, against the sukkah-truth of cheerful confidence and serenity which comes from placing trust in God’s protection. Magog is gog with the prefix M. This prefix expresses the idea of projecting something, representing the philosophy that man can insulate himself against the heavenly power of God – Magog is the attempt to effect this philosophy on Earth.

The sixth day of Sukkot is a cry for salvation, Hoshea na rabah! Save us now! Let us increase! This is a time for repentance, necessary for salvation, and a reminder of Yom Kippur, which was just eleven days ago. On this day during the second Temple period (Y’shua’s day), there was a procession through the streets of Jerusalem, singing Hoshea na! from Psalm 118:25. Hoshea na, written in Greek as Hosanna, means Save us! Now!! Some might say that this could have been the date of Y’shua’s triumphal entry, but the date is not what is most important. The critical point is that all those at Y’shua’s triumphal entry knew about this practice and the full meaning of it.

Shemini Atseret is the eighth day of the Feast of Sukkot.

The day after Shemini Atseret is a one-day post-Biblical celebration honoring the completion of the reading of the Torah and the beginning of the new round of reading Torah, Simchat Torah (Joy of the Torah). Today in Jerusalem many combine Simchat Torah with Shemini Atseret, celebrating both on the last day of Sukkot.

Hanukkah is the Feast of Dedication in Hebrew and its history is very interesting. It is referred to one time in Scripture. At that time it was the Feast of Dedication in Jerusalem, it was winter, and Y’shua was walking in the Temple, on Solomon’s Porch. (Jn. 10:22,23)

Around 170 BC the Greeks under Antiochus IV Epiphanes desecrated the Temple by sacrificing a pig at the altar. Antiochus tried to eliminate Judaism, not so much by killing the Jews as by forbidding the practice of Judaism. Reading Torah was forbidden, along with circumcision, honoring the Sabbath, and celebrating the Seasons of the Lord. In 167 BC a priest by the name of Mattityahu Hasmonea started guerrilla warfare along with his sons and a few followers. What they did in the hill country of Judea and Samaria was so amazing that books on their exploits are still studied by modern guerrilla fighters. Early in the war Judas Hasmonea took over after his father’s death and he is the one who came up with the legendary tactics. His motto was Mi Camokha BaElim Adona’y, from Exodus 15:11. The translation is: Who is like You, LORD*, among the gods? The initials of those words spell Maccabee, which is the name that was later applied to Judas and his followers. Although spelled differently in Hebrew, the Hebrew word for hammer sounds like maccabee. Therefore he was called “The Hammer,” so the books of Maccabees in the Apocrypha were written about their successful wars. In 164 BC they took over the Temple. This was the first war fought over a principle, religious freedom, and was the first successful guerrilla war, paralleling our American Revolution, also fought over principle using guerrilla tactics.

They needed to repair and dedicate the Temple right away. Dedication is an eight-day process that requires the use of sanctified oil for the menorah in the Holy Place, the first room of the Sanctuary. Tradition says they could only find a one-day supply of oil, but rather than wait eight days to sanctify more, they began the Temple sanctification process with the one-day supply. The LORD* through a creative miracle made that one day’s supply last the full eight days. For this reason Hanukkah is also called the Festival of Lights. See Hellenists elsewhere in Glossary.

Septuagint is the name given to the translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek that was made in Alexandria, Egypt, around 250 BC. The Septuagint translation was ordered by Ptolemy Philadelphus who reigned from 284-247 BC. He called seventy, or perhaps seventy-two, scholars from the ten tribes in Jerusalem to do the work in Alexandria. These scholars would not have included scribes because scribes were from the tribe of Levi, not the ten tribes. Also, there were few scribes among the Hellenists, the Greek speaking Jewish people.

The name of the translation, Septuagint, is the Latin word for seventy. The Septuagint translation opened the Scriptures to nominal Jewish people who did not attend synagogue, as well as to non-Jewish people of the civilized world, but its value to us lies in which Greek words those Hellenists used to translate the Hebrew into Greek. This gives real insight into the meanings of various Greek words used by the New Testament authors, because they learned Greek from the Hellenists. Until the last century, translators of the Greek text relied heavily on classic Greek and non-ecclesiastical Greek writings to determine the meanings of the Greek text. Using the meanings from the Septuagint gives meanings more in tune with the Hebrew Scriptures. See Hellenists elsewhere in Glossary.

Servant in the New Testament is a correct translation of three Greek words; diakonos, oiketays, and doulos. These three are worlds apart because diakonos is also translated minister and deacon while doulos and oiketays are also translated slave, meaning bond servant. An oiketays was a bond servant who worked only as a household servant; a maid, cook, nurse, butler, or some similar job. A bond servant is a person who has been purchased for a specific time or job. In the late 1800’s it was common for people in Europe to agree to work for a U.S. company for a specified time in payment for their passage to the U.S. A believer is to be a bond servant for the LORD* in the sense that we are obligated totally to Him, because our Redeemer purchased us with His blood. He is more than an employer because he has each of us under contract. This is different from slavery because we have free will and can break the contract if we desire. Paul’s letters to the Romans and to Titus, Jacob’s letter, 2 Peter, and Jude start by referring to the author as a doulos, a bond servant, of God or Y’shua. The relationship to people is as a diakonos. In several places this translation uses servant/minister to convey this point. A minister is ordained to serve people as Y’shua came to serve, not to be served. See Matt. 20:28.

In the Hebrew Scriptures the references to slaves are overwhelmingly to bond servants. Slaves in Greek and Roman law were possessions, like furniture, that an owner could treat however he wanted. Killing a slave was not a crime. In Jewish law, Scripture, the slaves were bond servants, who had to be set free if they were injured. And if a man strikes the eye of his bond servant or the eye of his female bond servant and destroys it, he will let him go free for his eye’s sake. 27. And if he knocks out his man bond servant’s tooth or his maid bond servant’s tooth, he will let him go free for his tooth’s sake. (Exod. 21:26,27) He also had to be given a bonus to make a new beginning. Beware that there is not a wicked thought in your heart saying, “The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand” and your eye is evil against your poor brother and you give him nothing and he cries to the LORD* against you then it is a sin for you. 10. You will surely give to him and your heart will not be grieved when you give to him. Because of this the LORD* your God will bless you in all your works and in all that you put your hand to. (Deut. 15:9,10) Every Hebrew bond servant was released in the seventh year and all bond servants were released in the Jubilee, 50th year. When you see references to slaves in the Hebrew Scriptures, you can be sure that the passage is speaking of bond servant. The only reference to slavery in the Hebrew Scriptures is in Ezek. 27:13 where the phrase “nefesh adam” is used, commonly translated “human souls” or “human lives.” In the New Testament the only reference to Greek and Roman slavery is in Rev. 18:13 where the Greek word somata is used of the merchants weeping over the loss of their wealth with the destruction of Babylon. That is speaking of bodies as possessions, which was the case with slavery, not only in Greece and Rome, but also in the United States, and was not the slavery of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Shalom cannot be translated into English with a single word. Shalom comes from Shalem meaning to be complete. When there is Shalom, there is tranquility, justice, sufficient food, clothing, housing. There is Divine health, with no sickness. Shalom means an absence of: disorder, injustice, bribery, corruption, conflict, lack, hatred, abuse, violence, pain, suffering, immorality, and all other negative forces. A rabbi wrote that Shalom means “No good thing is withheld.” Therefore when we pray for the Shalom of Jerusalem, we are praying that there will not be any injustice, disorder, strife, violence, poverty, sickness, abuse, accidents, homelessness, pain, hunger, and more. When Shalom reigns there will be no immorality, no injustice. The principles advocated in the Torah will be followed by all. Then the command to love your neighbor will be made complete.

Ra (Resh-Ayin) is the opposite of Shalom. While Ra is commonly translated evil or wicked, bad is given as the first meaning. The dictionary does not express the real meaning and English has no simple meaning of the Hebrew word Ra. Ra is the opposite of Shalom, so it means that nothing makes sense or fits. Chaos or anarchy are often used in this translation because they may best express the meaning of Ra. Anarchy or chaos reigned when the children of Israel strayed after false gods, when the Seasons of the Lord and tithes were ignored. When there is chaos in society the bullies take over, so might makes right. Corruption and bribery are common. Freedom is restricted. Immorality is the norm. There is no order in society, no justice. Sometimes in our lives we find that even though we cannot put a finger on it, there is just a feeling of things not right. That is the mild side of Ra. The far end of Ra is when everything is wrong, as with an absolutely hopeless situation. In that case only a personal relationship with the Living God can give you peace in your spirit. Through Him you can make it.

Shekhinah is a word that is not used in Scripture, but it is significant. It comes from the Hebrew root, sh-kh-n, meaning to dwell. Shekhinah is used by the Rabbis to speak of the presence of God, which is automatically accompanied by brilliant light so His presence is associated with the light that now is associated with Shekhinah. A related word is mishkan, meaning tabernacle, most often used for the Tabernacle of Moses, but sometimes translated “dwelling place.”

Shofar. One Greek word was used to translate both shofar and trumpet. The shofar is used to call people to repentance and many think that Judgment Day will be on the day referred to as the Day of Memorial, which is a call to repentance in Lev. 23:24. Commonly called the Feast of Trumpets, the Hebrew Scripture has neither the word feast nor the word trumpet. The shofar is the instrument used in 1 Cor. 15:52 and 1 Thess. 4:16. This Greek word, salpiggi, is often translated trumpet, but from the context of resurrection, the shofar would be used because resurrection is for judgment. Jewish scholars say resurrection takes place during the Feast of Unleavened Bread. Whether it takes place during Unleavened Bread or the Day of Memorial, resurrection will probably be called by a shofar. If Paul, in 2 Cor. 5:10, meant trumpet the reference would be to the Feast of Booths (Tabernacles) calling for the celebration of the eternal kingdom.

Sin is spoken about in the Hebrew Scriptures with six different Hebrew words.

The first three are general, speaking of any wickedness or evil.

Avel, meaning wickedness, injustice, wrong

Rasha, wicked, cruel, evil

Zadon, wickedness, evil, insolence, malice

These last three involve intent, which is how God classifies sin, from Exod. 34:6,7.

Avon, translated Iniquity, for Intentional Sin. Avah is the root word of
            avon, simply meaning “to sin.”

Fesha, translated Transgression, for Willful Sin. Fesha comes from
            the root pesha, which means to sin or to rebel. Pesha is used to describe
            sin committed with the Intention of Angering God. Even these are
            erased, Isa. 43:25.

Khata-ah, translated Sin, for Unintentional Sin. Hata is the root for
            khata-ah and means to sin, transgress, or miss. Hata-ah is used in
            Scripture for sin that is committed in carelessness or ignorance.

We can better understand how these words regarding sin were used by Jewish translators of Exodus 34:7 into Greek. See Hellenists and Septuagint elsewhere in this book.

Avon, = Greek anomia; iniquity or workers of iniquity.

Fesha = Greek adikia; injustice, unrighteousness, or wickedness.

Hata-ah = Greek amartia; failure, fault, sin

In the New Testament amartia is the most frequently used of those words.

A fourth Greek word comes from a Hebrew idiom for sin and is used only three times in the New Testament: astokheo. The literal meaning is to miss the mark, which is a Hebrew expression for sin. Stokhos means target, mark. Astokheo is used only in 1 Tim. 1:6; 6:21, and 2 Tim. 2:18.

Man tends to rate sins, with some more serious than others. The closest God comes to rating sins is in Pro. 6:16. The LORD* hates these six things, and seven are an abomination to Him: 17. a proud look, a lying tongue, hands that shed innocent blood, 18. a heart that devises wicked imaginations, feet that are swift in running to evil, 19. a false witness who speaks lies, and the one who sows discord among brothers. Note that pride and arrogance, then lying are listed even before murder. God’s rating system is by intent, not the specific sin.

Sin, Forgiveness of. While many Hebrew Scriptures proclaim forgiveness of sins, there is an order, a formula to obtaining forgiveness.

  1. Forgiveness of others

There is one precondition, without which no amount of repentance can bring forgiveness. That is, the sinner must forgive everyone of every little thing before God will accept the sinner’s repentant heart. Y’shua taught in the Lord’s Prayer, You must right now forgive our sins for us, in the same manner as we have completed forgiving everyone of everything, big and little, against us: (Matt. 6:12) Verses 14 and 15 then continue this theme,
For if you would forgive all other people their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: 15. but if you would not forgive all other people, neither will your Father forgive your sins. Mk. 11:25 and
Col. 3:13 reaffirm this principle.

  1. Forgive yourself

As you forgive others be sure to include yourself among those you forgive, to remember God’s great miracle of erasing your sin. You cannot make things right with God until you make things right with everyone, and until you make things right with yourself. Do not beat yourself over past mistakes, but forgive yourself. It is not possible for you to give your love to other people if you do not love yourself. A parent who does not love himself or herself is not able to give love to spouse or children. Forgive yourself and love yourself, then, with repentance, all of God’s love and forgiveness can flow through you. See Eph. 5:28.

  1. Seek forgiveness from others

Y’shua says And I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother will be guilty in the judgment. And whoever would say to his brother ‘Empty-headed,’ that one is guilty to the Sanhedrin: whoever would say, ‘Stupid’ is guilty in the Gehenna of the fire. 23. If therefore you would present your gift at the altar and there you would remember that your brother has something against you, 24. you must right away leave your gift there in front of the altar and go. You must first become reconciled with your brother, and then, after you come back, present your gift. (Matt. 5:22-24) The Talmud makes clear the need to seek forgiveness of those sins committed unintentionally. It also makes clear that the sinner must make things right with the offended party before going to God. See Gossip/Slander elsewhere in Glossary.

In seeking forgiveness from someone you are automatically confessing to that person. And if your brother sins against you, you must go, you must show him the error between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained your brother: (Lev. 19:17) 16. but if he would not listen, you must take with you yet one or two, so that ‘by a mouth of two or three witnesses every word would stand:’ (Deut. 19:35) 17. and if he refuses to listen to them, you must speak at once to the congregation: then if he refuses to listen to the congregation, he must be to you even as the heathen and the tax collector. (Matt. 18:15-17)

Confessing to a third party is not called for aside from the above sequence. Confessing to a group is not called for unless that group is the injured party. Therefore you must continually confess your sins for yourselves with one another and you must continually pray for yourselves on behalf of one another so that you would be healed. The plea of a righteous person is very powerful, working effectively. (Jcb. 5:16) Confession here is to the injured party. This verse has been misunderstood, but Jacob was not talking about public confession, nor was he talking about confessing the same sin over and over. After all, once repented that sin has been erased by God, Isa. 43:25.

  1. Repent

Therefore I shall judge you, O House of Israel, each one according to his ways, the word of Adonai, the LORD*. Repent! Turn from all your transgressions so iniquity will not be your ruin. (Ezek. 18:30) The Bible frequently uses the word return to express repentance, as Go! Let us return to the LORD*! For He has torn and He will heal us. He has smitten and He will bind us up. (Hos. 6:1) Return is appropriate because repentance requires action, much more than just regretting something. Without action, a change in behavior, there is not true repentance. The sinner must resolve not to repeat the mistake. See Psalm 51 for a model prayer of repentance.

  1. Forgiveness from God

There are three verses that clearly state God’s position. Exodus says, keeping loving kindness for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin, (Exod. 34:7) Isaiah wrote, I AM, I AM He Who erases your transgressions for My own sake and I shall not remember your sins!
(Isa. 43:25) Jeremiah wrote, They will no longer teach – each man his fellow, each man his brother – saying Know the LORD*! For all of them will know Me, from their smallest to their greatest – the word of the LORD* – when I shall forgive their iniquity (avon) and will no longer recall their sin
(Jer. 31:33)

  1. Clean slate

From the following verses we see that with repentance all sins are forgiven, even those committed with the intention of angering God. All forgiven sins are then deleted from God’s computer. The person who sins will die. The son will not bear the iniquity of the father, nor will the father bear the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous will be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked will be upon him. But if the wicked will turn from all his sins that he has committed, and keep all My statutes and do that which is lawful and right, he will surely live, he will not die.
22. All his transgressions that he has committed, they will not be mentioned against him. He will live in his righteousness that he has done. 23. Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die? Says Adonai, the LORD*, and not that he should return from his ways and live?
Ezek. 18:20-23) So Ezekiel removes all doubt about remembering sins, even those that are not mentioned in other verses about remembering. Our merciful heavenly Father forgives and forgets. Our All-Knowing Father is not forgetful, but He deletes forgiven sin from His computer. Ezek. 33:11 says, Say to them, As I live, says the Lord, the LORD*, I have no pleasure in the death of the wicked, but that the wicked would turn from his way and live. Turn. Turn from your evil ways! For why will you die, O House of Israel? Forgiven sins are erased, they never happened. Isa. 43:25 says, I AM, I AM He Who erases your transgressions for My own sake, and I shall not remember your sins!

A rabbi wrote many years ago that the greatest miracle of all happens when a sinner repents; because then God takes that person back in time to when the sin was committed – only this time the person does not commit the sin. Therefore the sin was never committed. So each of us needs to know that any remorse over past sin is not from God, but from the Accuser. Satan is the one who wants you to wallow in guilt. God says that any repented sin was never committed.
(Isa. 43:25, et al.) Accept God’s forgiveness, knowing that you are never again to dwell on that past mistake. That sin’s being erased is the greatest of all miracles.

Sin, National. National sin is a problem for Israel that crops up throughout history from the book of Numbers on. Ezekiel 34 is dedicated to this theme, with the shepherds representing the leaders of Israel, both secular and religious. National sin does have individuals who are set apart for God, as the LORD* spoke in
1 Ki. 19:18, when God spoke to Elijah, after Elijah complained to God that he was alone in worshipping God. Yet I have seven thousand left in Israel, all the knees which have not bowed to Baal, and every mouth which has not kissed him. Even though the nation was doomed, the saints were not doomed. In the exiles of the Northern Kingdom, then later the people of Judea, the good were punished with exile along with the idolaters, but God placed the blame on the leaders, as expressed in Ezekiel 34 and other passages.

In our democratic society, the elected leaders and the bureaucrats will bear punishment, but with a democracy all eligible voters bear responsibility. Saints will be saved, but will go through hardship, as did the Godly people of the times of exile, whether they were taken out of the country or left behind. Those left behind were the poor, the laborers and servants of the new hierarchy.

There is a chain reaction of National sin:

  1. Not dedicated to Bible study
  2. Stop doing commandments
  3. Be revolted by loyalty to the Bible
  4. Hate the sages and the apostles, founders of the Church
  5. Prevent others from obeying
  6. Deny the existence of God
  7. Deny that God gave the commandments

Since these are National, and in a democracy we are a nation of individuals, each to be a priest of the LORD*, we have an obligation to vote. The salvation and prosperity of the nation are at stake. This obligation extends to the very core of a democracy, the local county, town, school board, and virtually every level of government. As each person must go one step at a time, the nation goes one person at a time.

It is time for every believer to persist in prayer and to actively work for the godliness of their nation. The alternative is not pretty.

Son of David/Son of Joseph. We normally think of Y’shua as the Son of David the king. Certainly there are many Scripture references to the Son of David as being on the throne. Those watching the entry of Y’shua on Palm Sunday were all looking toward the expected soon Messianic reign of the Son of David. However, those who called the Son of David for healing, such as Bartimaeus in Mark, were calling another Son of David, the Shepherd. In Jn. 10:11 Y’shua says, I am the Good Shepherd and in Jn. 21:16 tells Peter to tend the flock. What is it that a shepherd does? His task is to keep his flock together, to see that they are nurtured, wounds and illnesses treated, properly fed, watered, sheltered, protected from any enemies. To do this he takes them from one pasture to another in the appropriate season and to ensure that they have shelter whenever that is called for. He shears them in proper season, both selling and using the wool and the milk while preserving the flock.

Jewish teachings tell us that there is also a Son of Joseph as a Messianic figure. The Son of Joseph is representative of the farmer because of Joseph’s dream of the sheaves in Genesis 37:6,7. The seven years of plenty are also representative of the farmer. The rabbis say that the enmity toward him by his brothers is from the brothers’ call to shepherding contrasted with Joseph’s call as a farmer. The two careers speak of two different ways of life, as we know from many tales of the ranchers and the farmers in the old west of the US.

While the shepherd maintains the status quo, the farmer is out to transform the land, from grasslands, woods, and swamps into land that produces crops, returning up to one hundred fold on his labor and seed. The labor is intense and includes eleven tasks forbidden on the Sabbath. These are sowing, plowing, reaping, gathering, threshing, winnowing, sorting, grinding, sifting, kneading, and baking. Of the shepherd’s duties only shearing and processing wool or milk are forbidden for the Sabbath.

With his transformation of the land, the Son of Joseph brings material
blessings, while the Son of David, also known as Judah, guards the past. In Ezek. 37:15-17 we have the two sticks, one representing Judah and the other Ephraim, being joined together. Since David is a son of Judah and Ephraim a son of Joseph, the elements are there for the merger of all believers, both Jewish and Christian, all segments of Judaism and Christianity coming together in a Messianic celebration.

It is interesting that Jewish scholars say that neither Judah nor Joseph can prevail alone. The two brothers need each other because a world of Josephs would lose sight of the old in its pursuit of the new, and a world of only Judahs could trap Judaism in a web of irrelevances.

Another expression of two Messiahs is with the terms “suffering Messiah” and “reigning Messiah.” Y’shua suffered in His first coming, but will reign on His next appearance. We can see both Judah and Joseph in His ministry, with many references to shepherding and many to being transformed. Examples of being transformed include the parables of the sower and statements such as You will know them by their fruit. (Matt. 7:16) Paul also referred to our transformation in Rom. 12:2 the renovation of your mind. When Y’shua reigns it seems that His reign will be like Joseph’s as the Prime Minister under the King of the Universe. Another similarity to Joseph is His physical absence from us for a season. The current Church is more under David than Joseph, being maintained more than transformed. Satanic forces still have power, much of it conceded by the Church, since very few teach and minister deliverance. Messiah’s reign will be without Satan while he is bound for a thousand years. (Rev. 20:2) Only then, without Satanic influences, will people be totally transformed and be able to be all that they can be. In that sense the current status is more like the Davidic reign and the Messianic reign will be more like the reign of Joseph. By that we can readily see that Y’shua is both Son of David and Son of Joseph, whether 2,000 years ago or in His reign.

Sorcery is described by four Greek words: pharmakeia, pharmakeuo, pharmakeus, and pharmakos. Pharmakeuo is the verb that means to administer drugs for the purpose of inducing spells, with visions and messages from spirits. Two nouns come from this verb: pharmakeia, used in Gal. 5:20, Rev. 9:21; 18:23. This is the form that refers to the sorcery, while pharmakeus, used in Rev. 21:8, is the form that refers to the person who either prepares the drugs or uses them. Pharmakos, used in Rev. 22:15, refers to one who is devoted to this use of drugs. From these verses we have compelling proof that what is now euphemistically called “recreational drug use” is sinful.

Numerous verses tell us that drunkenness is sinful and three, Lk. 21:34,
Rom. 13:13, and Gal. 5:21 tell us that any intoxicant is wrong. The Greek word used in those verses is methai, which is nearly always translated drunkenness. Methai literally means intoxicant, so in the three verses mentioned here the reference is to any intoxicant, not just alcohol. Intoxication from any source is a sin and is to be avoided judiciously.

Soul is a word not used often in the One New Man Bible. The Hebrew word Nefesh and the Greek word Psukhei are commonly translated soul, but each word also means Life and is frequently translated Life in even the King James Version. The often used meaning of Soul as Mind, Will, and Emotions is from Greek philosophy, having been written by Plato. Greek philosophy was introduced into Christian doctrine by Augustine in the fifth century. In verses where Life is not an appropriate translation, this translation uses Inner Being, Whole Being, or Being. Sometimes the word Soul is used, especially in Psalms, but do not think of soul as only mind, will, and emotions. It does include those, but is much more than those, so expand the word Soul to include the very gift of Life, the breath and vibrancy of your body.

Sowing and Reaping. Paul wrote in 2 Cor. 9:6. And this, the one who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and the one who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully. 7. Each just as he chose in his heart, not reluctantly or from compulsion: for God loves a cheerful giver, 8. And God is able to abound all grace in you, so that in all things always having sufficiency you would abound in every good work, 9. just as it has been written,

            He scattered, he gave to the poor,

                  his righteousness remains forever.

  1. But the One Who supplies seed to the sower also provides bread for food and He will increase your seed and will increase the yield of your righteousness.
    (Ps. 112:9,10)

Paul is speaking of sowing money into the congregation in Jerusalem, and this principle applies to all giving to ministries and charities. We often use this symbol of sowing for financial gifts, but we sow much more than money as we go about our business every day. In all sowing we need to be careful what we sow, where we sow, and how much we sow. Seed should not be wasted by sowing too much, or by sowing on ground that will not give a return.

While finances are an obvious application of the metaphor of sowing, the primary seed we sow is not money, but action – that is, the things we do and say throughout each day. A teaching by a Hebrew scholar holds, “Greater is he who performs charity (acts of loving kindness) than [he who offers] all the sacrifices, for it is said, To do acts of loving kindness and justice is more acceptable to the LORD* than sacrifice.” (Pro. 21:3)

We need to remember that we are sowing with every word we speak, everything we do. A missed opportunity is a seed not sown. See Righteousness elsewhere in Glossary.

Suffering as in 1 Pe. 3:17 It is better to suffer for doing good, if he might want the will of God, rather than doing evil. 18. Because Messiah also once suffered concerning sin, the righteous One on behalf of the unjust, so that He could bring you to God when He died on the one hand in the flesh, but then was made alive by the Spirit: Y’shua said we would be persecuted, Jn. 15:20. A rabbinic teaching has, “It is said, Whosoever does not persecute them that persecute him, whosoever takes an offense in silence, he who does good for its own sake, he who is cheerful under his sufferings – they are the friends of God: and of them Scripture says, ‘They that love Him will be as the sun, when he goes forth in his might.’ This is based on Jdg. 5:31. Those who love Him will be like the going forth of the sun in its might.

Synagogues in ancient Israel were mostly in homes. Most of the large first century synagogues excavated so far in Israel are in Herod’s palaces, but a number of synagogues have been found in private homes or formerly private homes. What was originally thought to be a first century formal synagogue in Capernaum has been found to have been built in the fourth century AD. There the building called Peter’s House was a private home that had been used as a synagogue. The current museum over the site looks upon the ruins of a fifth century building, but there is a house under that structure that was used as both a home and a synagogue in the first century. Whether Peter lived there is not certain, but archealogists have discovered evidence of its being used as a synagogue.

Take/Receive. Our English translators have very often translated the Hebrew and Greek words for take as “receive” – really weakening Scripture. The source of this was the Latin text used for the first English translations. Here, we are just seeking truth, not traditional translation. The questions are, “What did the author say?” “What did the Lord say?” The Hebrew L-K-H means take, while the Greek verbs commonly used are Dekhomai, meaning to take with the hand, and Lambano, meaning to take hold of, to grip. A third Greek word translated receive is Kamidzo, meaning to carry off. Two other Greek words meaning take are aireo and airo, which are not translated receive. When you see Take in the New Testament, keep in mind the force behind each of these verbs, knowing that we need to be eager, really hungry for the things of the Lord. One place where take is important is in Jn. 20:22. And after He said this He breathed upon them and said to them, You must immediately take the Holy Spirit. The Latin word is accipite, meaning to accept, receive, or take. Thus the traditional English translation has been to receive, while John used Lambano, saying to really go for it, grab onto the Holy Spirit.

Testimony of Y’shua (Jesus). The key verse is Rev. 19:10. Then I fell before his feet to pay homage to him. And he said to me, ‘Stop! Don’t do that: I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers who have the testimony of Y’shua: you must now pay homage to God. For the testimony of Y’shua is the Spirit of Prophecy.’ The testimony means two different things.

One is that we are to testify about Him. We certainly are to testify about Him in both word and deed. We are to show our family, friends, neighbors, co-workers, and everyone we meet that we are different, set apart from the world. We are to show by the way we live that we are committed wholeheartedly to the LORD*.

The second and deeper meaning speaks of Y’shua as the Word of God, as in Jn. 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Rev. 1:2,9; 20:4 use the expression the Word of God and the testimony of Y’shua, using a Hebrew form of repetition to emphasize the statement, in effect saying “He is Scripture.” Ps. 119:2 has Happy are those who keep His testimonies, seeking Him with the whole heart. Jewish Commentary says that “His testimonies” “refers to the Torah and mitzvot, which bear testimony to God’s relationship to Israel.” Those who serve Him wholeheartedly know His Scripture and do His mitsvot, which are His commandments. The phrase, “His testimonies,” is used ten times in the Hebrew Scriptures. John recorded in
Rev. 19:10 Then I fell before his feet to pay homage to him (the angel). And he said to me, “Stop! Don’t do that: I am a fellow servant with you and your brothers who have the testimony of Y’shua: you must now pay homage to God. For the testimony of Y’shua is the Spirit of Prophecy.”

Spirit of Prophecy is action, putting God’s Word to work and turning His commandments into deeds. Doing His commandments is the Spirit of Prophecy; that is, the goal, the fulfilling of all prophecy, as His people are doing all that He has commanded, bringing His perfect will into being so that all He has spoken has come to pass. We are to be so committed to knowing His Word and to doing His will, that we move in perfect synchronization with Him, just as His Incarnate Body, Y’shua, did while He walked the earth. Spirit of Prophecy is a term used by Torah scholars from ancient times, so John would have understood the meaning when the messenger spoke this to him. Commentary lists many examples of people being led by the Spirit of Prophecy, with a few examples here:

The seventy elders to help Moses carry the load in the wilderness

The ten spies to the valley of Eshcol to get the grapes that they brought back

Rahab to instruct the two spies that their pursuers would turn back in three days

Ruth to the field of Boaz

The Testimony of Y’shua is the very Spirit of Prophecy. Each of us has been given the gift of prophecy and each of us is to live by that, to be so in tune with the perfect will of God that we follow the examples cited above to bring His perfect will here to earth. Rom. 13:14. but you will become so possessed of the mind of the Lord Y’shua Messiah that you will resemble Him and you must not be concerned for desires of the flesh. To be possessed of or to have the mind of the Lord is to have your spirit so in tune with the Lord that you understand what He means, what He would have you do. That is also the primary meaning of
1 Cor. 2:16, which ends with But we have the mind of Messiah. See Lord’s Prayer elsewhere in Glossary.

The following commentary was written by June Rice, author of inspirational books. “The Hebrew references all had one thing in common. In each instance cited, they relate to His Consummate Plan for the Ages. Each event moves, and is prompted, according to Prophetic Time, so there are actually two Time Lines here, the natural and Prophetic Time (personal prophecy included) because both move along according to and with God’s Prophetic Time, with increasing frequency, like labor pains coming faster, toward the final crowning of that particular birth.

“The testimony of Y’shua is Himself reigning now in us, and ultimately on the new earth. This shows me why we need one another, and why the move of the saints is so critical. In each of the Hebrew references cited in Hebrew Scriptures it had to do with others; such as the seventy elders (government of God) the ten spies getting the grapes (this can refer to the abundance of the final harvest, but not all are willing to step out in faith for it) or Ruth going to the field of Boaz that resulted in the birth of Y’shua, a daring new thing, and also bore witness to the New Man birthed from both Gentile and Jew which should be the new pattern birthed in the Church, which is also quite startling.”

[1]        Temple is spelled ‘ieron in Greek. The letter h in Greek is the accent mark ‘, called the “hard breather.”


[2]        The seasons are literally the “appointed times of the LORD*.”


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