Pay Homage is the translation of the Greek word Proskuneo, which is frequently translated worship. The meaning is to get on one knee and touch the forehead to the ground at the feet of someone of royal rank. Y’shua was frequently greeted this way. Often it is not clear whether to translate it pay homage or worship, so here the standard was to use pay homage if it was a greeting, whether to Y’shua or someone else. When John greeted the angel this way in Rev. 19:10, the angel told him to get up. A place where worship is the obvious meaning is Jn. 4:20 ..our fathers worshipped on this mountain.

Pentecost is the Greek name for the Feast of Shavuot, or Weeks. This celebrates the wheat harvest and at two days is the shortest major feast. The names Pentecost and Shavuot come from the command to count the time from the First Fruits during the Feast of Unleavened Bread to this First Fruits. Shavuot is the Hebrew word for weeks, for the seven weeks plus one day for the time from the First Fruits of Unleavened Bread to the next First Fruits. That period of time is called counting the Omer, which is the day after the seventh week, or fifty days. See Leviticus 23:15. See Shavuot in Seasons of the LORD* elsewhere in Glossary.

Phileo, meaning I love, a synonym of agapao, is used only twenty-four times in the New Testament. It is used in Jn. 5:20 and 16:27 of God loving Y’shua and of His loving us. It is used to speak of Y’shua’s love for us in Jn. 11:3; 11:36; 20:2, and Rev. 3:19. Phileo is used in the Septuagint in similar proportion to agapao as in the New Testament. See Agapao elsewhere in Glossary.

Placement of a name in a listing of two or more names is significant. The most important name was placed first. Thus the placing of Priscilla before Aquila signified greater respect for her.

Prayer Shawl is given in Num. 15:37-41 where Moses is told, And the LORD* spoke to Moses saying, 38. “Speak to the children of Israel and bid them to make fringes (tsitsit) for themselves in the corners of their garments throughout their generations and that they put upon the fringe of the border a thread of blue,
39. and it will be to you for a fringe, that you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the LORD* and do them, and that you do not seek after your own heart and your own eyes, after which you used to go astray, 40. so you will remember and do all My commandments and be holy to your God. 41. I AM the LORD* your God, Who brought you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: I AM the LORD* your God.”

The fringes, called tsitsit in Hebrew, were placed on the corners of the outer garment, which was larger than the current prayer shawls and looked like a poncho with tsitsit. This was like a sheet with a hole in the middle for the head. The front piece was tied behind the back, then the back was lapped over and tied in front. This is the seamless garment in Jn. 19:23. Recent archaeological digs have found a number of these from Biblical times. This garment served as a blanket as stated in Exod. 22:26.

The garment now made to these specifications is the talit, also spelled tallit, called a prayer shawl in English. The purpose for it is for everyone, including the wearer, to look at it and remember all the commandments of the LORD*. This list of 613 commandments includes the promises of God, so in Y’shua’s day people would see all the power of God in that fringe, called tsitsit in Hebrew, when the prayer shawl was worn by an anointed man of God. That is why the woman with the bloody issue reached for the fringe in Matt. 9:20 and
Lk. 8:44 and why many sought to touch the tsitsit of His talit in Matt. 14:36 and
Mk. 6:56. We know this is the tsitsit because the Jewish translators who translated the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek used the Greek word kraspedon for tsitsit and kraspedon is used in the Gospels where tsitsit would be appropriate.

Y’shua used the prayer shawl in Mk. 5:41, the raising of Jairus’ daughter. We know that Y’shua was wearing a talit at the time because of the reference to it regarding the woman with the bloody issue, after Y’shua and Jairus had started on the way to Jairus’ home. There Y’shua took the girl’s hand and said “Talitha coum!” This is Hebrew for “Talit rise!” the verse goes on and says “..translated means ‘maid arise’” (KJV) and “my child get up.” (NIV) The Greek word translated maid or child is talitha, the Greek spelling of talit. Coum is the Hebrew word for rise, or get up. Some Greek texts say coumi, the feminine form, which is the correct word for this verse, since talitha is a feminine noun. There is an Aramaic word similar to talitha that was taken for talitha. That is talyetha, which means young woman. That would require the misspelling of talyetha instead of talitha in all the manuscripts. We know that His use of the talit in this miracle and His speaking to the talit would have been appropriate and would have been understood by those with Him. In that case He would have placed His prayer shawl over the girl, then spoken to the prayer shawl. There is another Aramaic word that some say is the correct word for this verse. It is taly’tah, meaning lamb. This would have Y’shua address her as “Lambkin” a not unreasonable assumption. Coumi would also be the correct verb because it is the same in Aramaic and Hebrew. Y’shua would have been speaking Hebrew, so the One New Man Bible uses talit, which is the closest word to the Greek transliteration.

Prayer shawl making required Rabbinic training which Paul, Priscilla, and Aquila had. (Acts 18:2,3) The Greek word skenopoioi, translated prayer shawl makers or tent makers, is not found anywhere else in Scripture or in secular Greek writing. Perhaps Luke coined the word or possibly skenopoioi was used by Greek speaking Jewish people when speaking of making prayer shawls. Jewish men referred to the prayer shawl as a tent or prayer closet because it was placed over the head to shield the eyes while praying.

The Greek-English Lexicon by Bauer Arndt and Gingrich devotes nearly an entire column to skenopoioi. Bauer does not identify the trade, but says that it was of a technical nature and it would not have been in making ordinary tents, leather working, or erecting tents, possibilities suggested by other scholars. The technical training that we know all three had was rabbinic training, which was required to make another item referred to as a tent. That is the prayer shawl, which when it was pulled over the head to shield the eyes while praying, was called a tent or prayer closet. Making prayer shawls is an occupation that Paul could have pursued in any metropolitan area without having to haul various tools and supplies as he traveled. While Bauer leaves the trade an open question, prayer shawl making stands out as the most likely single prospect.

A prayer shawl reference not often recognized is in Matt. 25:35 For I was hungry and you gave Me to eat, I was thirsty and you gave Me to drink, I was a stranger and you took Me in, 36. and I was poorly clothed and you clothed Me, The Greek word for “you clothed” is periebalete, referring to putting on the outer garment, which would have been the prayer shawl of a Jewish man. The fact that it was just the outer garment to be put on shows that the person had not been naked, as some translations say, but the stranger was poorly clothed. The fact that it was a prayer shawl indicates that the person who gave the garment ministered to the spiritual needs of the stranger while meeting the material needs.

Another reference to the prayer shawl is in 1 Cor. 11:15. This Greek word, peribolaiou, means wrapper or covering in reference to a garment. The NIV translates it as covering. Deut. 22:12 says You will make for yourself fringes upon the four corners of your covering, prayer shawl, with which you cover yourself. The twisted cords are the tsitsit of the prayer shawl. The word translated covering is k’sootkha, and simply means “your covering.” There are no alternative meanings for k’soo(t) (the kha suffix is the pronoun your). In the Septuagint peribalou is the word used to translate k’soo(t) in Deut. 22:12. Paul was clearly saying that women were given long hair instead of a prayer shawl. The word k’soot-ho, meaninig “his covering” is used in Exod. 22:26. There it shows the use of this large garment as a blanket.

One of the most beautiful scenes in Scripture involving the prayer shawl is Ruth 3:9. Ruth asked Boaz to spread his prayer shawl over her when she lay at his feet. Most translations say she asked him to spread his skirt over her, but the Hebrew says she asked him to spread his wing over her. The wing of a prayer shawl is the part that hangs down when the wearer spreads each arm out to the side, letting the long panel from his wrist to his side hang down. Calling that the wing alludes to the long established Hebrew tradition referring to the way a male bird opens his wings when he mates with his bride. The tradition in Jewish history has been for a bridegroom to cover his bride with his prayer shawl at their wedding. This tradition evolved into the present day hupah, which is a prayer shawl held up by four poles to cover a bride and groom for their wedding ceremony. When Ruth asked Boaz to spread his prayer shawl over her, she in effect was saying “Let’s get married.” Boaz understood that by his immediate response, acknowledging his role as kinsman redeemer.

Preparation Day refers to the things that must be done in the daylight hours leading to the Sabbath, which begins at sundown. This is mentioned in Matt. 27:62, Mk. 15:42, Lk. 23:54, and Jn. 18:28; 19:14,31,42. Some say there is a conflict in dates between the Synoptic Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke, and the Gospel of John because the Synoptic Gospels describe the Last Supper, calling it a Seder, but John does not call it a Seder. Although John does not call it a Seder, his 13th chapter describes the Last Supper. The confusion comes because the text in John refers to Preparation Day, the day before the weekly Sabbath, but the text also refers to eating the Seder and to Passover. If Passover were a Sabbath that would present a problem.

Modern Judaism celebrates Passover on the 15th of Nisan, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. To have Passover on the 15th requires translating the Hebrew word for dusk as afternoon in Leviticus 23. However, dusk is after sundown, not before sundown. Both Exod. 12:6 and Lev. 23:5 use the same expression for dusk, “bain harba’im.” This expression refers to the time between light and darkness, which is twilight or dusk, the time between sunset and darkness. Num. 33:3 says, They journeyed from Ramses in the first month, on the fifteenth day of the first month: – on the day after the Pesahoffering.. The Pesah-offering is the Passover lamb that had to be eaten the evening of its sacrifice, the fourteenth of Aviv or Nisan. Thus we can surmise that in Y’shua’s day Passover was celebrated at the eve of Preparation Day and the change for eating the Seder to the first day of Unleavened Bread was made sometime later. Exod. 12:18, Num. 28:16-18, and Jsh. 5:10 say the Passover is eaten on the fourteenth.

      The fact is that the Passover is not a Sabbath, unless it happens to fall on the weekly Sabbath. The Scripture says in Lev. 23:5. In the fourteenth day of the first month at evening is the Lord’s Passover. 6. And on the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread to the LORD*; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. 7. In the first day of Unleavened Bread you shall have a holy gathering; you shall do no labor in it. 8. But you shall offer an offering made by fire to the LORD* seven days; in the seventh day is a holy gathering; you shall do no labor in it.

The Sabbaths of the Feast of Unleavened Bread are the first day, which is the day after Passover, and the last day. Feast day Sabbaths, except for Yom Kippur, are not full Sabbaths, but only prohibit doing your normal work. The Hebrew text in Leviticus calls the weekly Sabbath, “Shabbat Shabbaton,” translated as “complete rest” in some texts. Work in feasts is “M’labet Avodah” referring to whatever is done for a living. Cooking in the home is permitted on a feast day. Mk. 15:42 and Lk. 23:54 clearly show the regular weekly Sabbath. Mk. 15:42. And now when it became evening, since it was the day of preparation, that is the day before a Sabbath.. Lk. 23:54 And it was the day of preparation for it was approaching the Sabbath. John also ties preparation day to the Sabbath, 19:31. Then the Jewish people, since it was preparation day, so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath, for it was to be a great day of that Sabbath, they were asking Pilate that the soldiers would break their legs so they could remove the bodies. These are all speaking of the full Sabbath that does require preparation, especially the mikveh, which is immersion for purification, also called sanctification. In Y’shua’s day all observant Jewish men immersed as preparation for the Sabbath. Some time later the mikveh started being used to prepare for feast days as well as the Sabbath.

Besides the mikveh, the Talmud speaks of food preparation for the Sabbath because food to be eaten on the Sabbath had to be prepared before sundown brought the Sabbath. Food eaten on Passover was to be prepared on that day, per Exod. 12:16. And in the first day there shall be a holy convocation, and in the seventh day there shall be a holy convocation to you; no kind of work shall be done in them, save that which every man must eat, only that may be done by you. From this verse we know that the day before Passover and the day before the first day of Unleavened Bread were not preparation days. Preparation was for the weekly Shabbat, the Sabbath.

The Seder was to be prepared after sundown on Nissan 14, then eaten that same night. Exod. 12:6. And you shall keep it up until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it in the evening. 7. And they will take of the blood and strike it on the two side posts and on the upper door post of the houses, in which they will eat it. 8. And they shall eat the meat in that night, roasted with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. 10. And you shall let nothing of it remain until the morning; and that which remains of it until the morning you shall burn with fire. 11. And thus shall you eat it; with your loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand; and you shall eat it in haste; it is the Lord’s Passover. There was not a day of preparation.

John’s text refers twice to the Seder. In 18:28, Then they led Y’shua from Caiaphas to the praetorium: it was early: but they did not enter the praetorium, so that they would not be defiled, but could eat the Seder. In 19:14, And it was preparation day for Passover, it was about the sixth hour. And he said to the Jewish people, ‘Behold your king.’ The preparation to be done was immersion for purification, which Christians call baptism. This was to be done during daylight hours, for the Sabbath that would begin at sundown. Since those at the home of Caiaphas were there during darkness, before sunrise, if this were Preparation Day, they would not yet have immersed, so the phrase “but could eat the Seder” is incorrect. Either the Seder had already been eaten or it was too early to have immersed for purification. The Passover would be eaten at the beginning of Preparation Day, so the meal that Y’shua and the disciples had eaten was the Passover Seder. Later that day during daylight hours each one would go to one of the pools for immersion. The Temple had many pools under Solomon’s Porch and many of the hundreds of synagogues in Jerusalem would have had immersion pools to accommodate the thousands coming for the Feast.

John describes a meal in Chapter 13:1-30 when Y’shua washed the feet of the disciples before reclining to eat. This meal was the Seder. For that to be the case the references to the Seder in John 18:28 “but could eat the Seder” and Passover in 19:14 “for Passover” would have to be later additions to the text, the copier who added those words assuming that Passover was a Sabbath, and not knowing that Preparation Day required immersion during daylight but before the Sabbath began at sundown. Whoever added those words also did not understand that the Seder was eaten in the home and that entering the praetorium would not prevent anyone from eating the Seder with his family, but would prevent a priest from performing his Sabbath duties in the temple. Matthew, Mark, and Luke are all clear that Y’shua was crucified on Preparation Day, in the daylight hours following the Seder.

As much as we would like to think that every word in the NT was written by the 1st century author, such is not the case. Early copiers were sending Good News to a friend, not knowing that what they were copying would later be Scripture. There was no need for professional copying, which had exacting standards. An additional problem was that Koine Greek was a group of dialects based on the Greek language, but with regional variations. A traveler from Greece who found a believer in Syria, when copying his friend’s notes would not just feel free, but would feel obligated to change Syrian Koine to Greek Koine.

Even after the 2nd century changes in the manuscripts were made continually until the first Greek texts were printed in the 16th century. The New Testament as it was copied was never subjected to the standards of the Hebrew Massoretic text, copied by Jewish scribes, or of classic literature, which was copied by professional copiers. Most of the changes in the New Testament were additions, added with the intention of bringing clarity, but there were also mistakes in copying and misspelling. Since New Testament copiers were not Jewish, many of the additions showed a lack of knowledge of Jewish Scripture and Jewish customs, such as with the woman caught in adultery. These additions still leave the basic Gospel message intact, but the closer we can get to the original text the more anointing the text will have. See Adultery and Greek New Testaments Texts in this Glossary about additions to the New Testament.

      Preparation Day is subject to some confusion. Mk. 15:42, Lk. 23:54, and
Jn. 19:31 properly record that the preparation was for the Sabbath. Mark and Luke record that it was after the Seder. John records that Preparation Day came after the Last Supper in John Chapter 13, although John does not refer to that meal as the Seder. There is no conflict in Mark, Luke, and John, except we have to see that apparently the words “but could eat the Seder” in John 18:28 and “for Passover” in John 19:14 were added sometime later by a copier who was not familiar with Jewish customs.

The timing of the Seder on Thursday evening, then His arrest, trial, and crucifixion during the daylight hours, with His burial before sundown Friday, has Y’shua entombed before the Sabbath started. Sundown Friday is the start of the second day, the regular Sabbath, which that year also was the first day of the Feast of Unleavend Bread. Sundown Saturday starts the third day, which was First Fruits that year. This had Y’shua in the tomb for two nights and parts of three days. His resurrection coming by sunup of the third day goes with the following verses, which say “the third day:” Matt. 16:21; 17:23; 20:19; 27:64, Lk. 9:22; 18:33; 24:7,46. Only Matt. 12:40 quoting Jonah 1:17 says “three days and three nights.” The other eight references to His resurrection say “the third day.” Since we have no manuscripts from the first century we cannot know these things for a certainty, but this is a likely scenario. If Y’shua had been in the tomb for three nights, He would have been resurrected on the fourth day.

This chart puts the timing in perspective:

Date                               Happenings                       Chronology

Nissan 14

Thursday sundown           Start of Passover               1st Day


                                       Y’shua’s Arrest


Next morning                  Crucifixion

Afternoon                        Preparation Day,

                                       preparing for

                                       weekly Sabbath



Nissan 15

Friday sundown;              Weekly Sabbath Day         2nd Day

                                       1st Day Unleavened Bread,

                                       Y’shua in tomb entire day


Nissan 16

Saturday sundown;          First Fruits                             3rd Day

During night                    Resurrection

An interesting point is that the Jewish commentators said long ago that the resurrection of the righteous would take place during the Feast of Unleavened Bread, just as we see here with Y’shua.

Priestly Blessing, Numbers 6:22-26. In the days of the First and Second Temples this could only be given by a priest because verse 23 tells Moses to instruct Aaron and his sons to say this. With no Temple in Jerusalem it is to be spoken by someone of authority in the congregation. This person is to stand facing the congregation with arms raised. That is easy. It is then to be spoken in Hebrew – not easy for some. Whoever says this is to have knowledge, understanding, and readiness for sacrifice and prayerfulness. There must be commitment on the part of the one who gives this blessing. Notice that literally the positive “will” is used instead of the “may” or just “The LORD bless..”

Verse 24 contains just three Hebrew words. The translation is:

The LORD* will bless you

This is two Hebrew words. The second word is “the LORD*” and the first is “He will bless you” and speaks of material blessing, for life, health, and prosperity per Deut. 28:1-14. The “you” is singular referring both to the individual believer and the congregation as a single, unified body.

And He will keep you

This is the third Hebrew word in the verse and means to guard your material blessings, to protect your life and health, to protect you against all evil, sickness, poverty, and calamity. Again the “you” is singular.

Verse 25 contains five Hebrew words. The translation is:

The LORD* will make His face to shine upon you

“To shine upon you” is the first Hebrew word and this word for shine is also the word for light. It is a symbol of happiness, purity, friendship. God’s face shining upon you symbolizes the outpouring of Divine love and salvation, Ps. 80:20 saying Restore us, O LORD* God of Hosts! Cause Your face to shine upon us, so we will be saved! This represents the gift of knowledge and moral insight as well as friendship with God. In verse 25 “you” is also singular.

And He will be gracious to you.

      He will give you grace in the eyes of your fellow men. He will make you lovable and beloved in the eyes of others – believers. You will be respected by the world, applying both to the individual and to Israel as a nation. The LORD* will establish you as a holy people to Himself, as He has sworn to you, if you will keep the commandments of the LORD* your God, and walk in His ways. And all people of the earth will see that you are called by the name of the LORD*; and they will stand in awe of you. (Deut. 28:9,10)

Verse 26 contains seven Hebrew words. The translation is:

The LORD* will lift His countenance to you

This is four Hebrew words saying He will turn His attention to you. Again “you” is singular. For Him to turn His attention to you, lifting His head to search you out to cast His loving care upon you.

And He will establish your Shalom.

This is three Hebrew words and the word usually translated give (give you peace) means much more than that. It means to set, to establish you in Shalom. The LORD* does not just give it and leave it at that, but He sees to it that you are firmly established in Shalom! Shalom, the word normally translated peace, means health, welfare, security, justice, and tranquility, also freedom from all disaster. A Hebrew scholar gave the best English translation of Shalom: “No good thing is withheld.” Y’shua gave us this in Jn. 14:27, saying “Shalom aleikhem.” See Shalom elsewhere in this Glossary.

Prophets in the Jewish Bible, and in this translation, refers to the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings, 2 Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, then the Twelve Prophets. The Book of Daniel is placed with the group of books called The Writings. The Jewish Bible is called The Tanach, an acrostic of the names of the three sections, Torah (Teaching), Neviim (Prophets), and Ch’tuvim (Writings). The last books of the Writings are 1 & 2 Chronicles, which were the last books of the Tanach to be written.

Proselyte is an interesting word because it is translated as convert, and has even come into modern English as a verb, to proselytize, meaning to make converts. The meaning in Greek is different: residence as a stranger, with the related verb meaning to live in a place as a stranger. A convert would join the community, not live there as a stranger. Modern Judaism uses proselyte according the original Greek meaning, referring to righteous proselytes as those who love God, love Torah, love Israel, and love the Jewish people, but do not convert. Thus many evangelical Christians would qualify as proselytes. This book translates proselyte as convert, but we need to be curious about what Luke and Matthew had in mind when they used the word. Proselyte is used in Matt. 23:15, Acts 2:10; 6:5; 13:43.

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