Lachish is one of the oldest and most important cities in Israel, inhabited before 3000 BC. It was a royal city for the Canaanites and an important fortress for Judea, located about twenty-five miles southwest of Jerusalem. It suffered destruction several times down through the centuries, including by Joshua (Jsh. 10:31-33) and twice by Nebuchadnezzer, in 597 and 587 BC. Its resettling in Nehemiah’s time is told in Neh. 11:30. Archeologists excavated and identified Lachish in the 1930’s.

Latin Words appear in our English translations because those words were not translated when the early English translations were made.

The following list shows a few of these. Another is the translation from Latin, although not using the Latin word: it is No-ado in Hebrew, which means Meet. Many English translations use the translation of the Latin Convenio, meaning Agree, Amos 3:3.


Hebrew Word                                Latin Word

Tevah: box                                      Arca, box, chest: Noah’s Ark, Moses Ark

Aron: chest                                     Arca, box, chest: Ark of the Covenant

Mishkan: tabernacle                         Tabernaculum: Tabernacle

Sukkah: booth                                 Tabernaculum: booth, Amos 9, Acts 15

Ohel: tent                                        Tabernaculum: tent

Hatslah: succeed, prosper                 Prospero: succeed

Goy: heathen, nation                        Gentilis: heathen

Man-hu: What is it?                         Manna: no Latin meaning

Yak’veni: outwit                             Subplantavit: supplant

Yoshev: dwelling, place, sit, live      Mansio(nes): place, dwelling

                                                      Habito: live, inhabit

Kaf, Hebrew: Kefa (Aramaic)          Cefas (Peter): no Latin meaning

small rock

C’tonet Pasim: Long Tunic              Tunicam Polymitam: Tunic of different                          colors

Y’aker: Castrate, make sterile           Subnervo: Hamstring

Yod: 10th Hebrew letter                   Jot: Latin equivalent of Yod, Matt. 5:18

The following word is translated, but with a meaning that differs from the Hebrew

K’poret: cover                                  Propitiatorum: mercy seat (cover of the Ark)

New Testament Latin Words not Translated:

Greek Word                                    Latin Word

Ethnos: people other than Jewish      Gentilis: heathen

Dunamis: Power                              Virtis: Power, Excellence, Ability

Magoi: sorcerers, magicians             Magi: sorcerers, magicians

Mamona: wealth, riches[1]                  Mammona: wealth, riches

Monai: staying, dwelling (place)      Mansio(nes): place, dwelling

Petros: a piece of a rock                   Petrus: Peter

Skene: tent, booth                            Tabernaculum: tent, booth

Legalism is man’s way of defining Scripture. The motivation for this is good – so that everyone will understand and agree on the boundaries that are vague in Scripture. The problem of this defining is that the definition can become the focus instead of the Scripture, and that is where man goes astray, because we are to keep our focus on God, not on our own rules. An example is the Sabbath, where much of the Church has neglected the Scriptural prohibitions, saying the prohibitions are not important or that every day is a Sabbath – impossible if you refer to the very nature of Sabbath. Y’shua never did anything on a Sabbath that is prohibited in Scripture, but legalism had come in and He was criticized for doing things that well-intentioned men had defined for clarity and consistency. Legalism is the opposite of giving control to the Holy Spirit. See Sabbath in Seasons of the LORD* of this Glossary.

Leprosy of Scripture is not like the disease known by that name today. The Hebrew word ‘Tsara-at’ is translated in Greek by the word ‘Lepra’ which is the source of our word leprosy, but the rash and contagion are not the same as the symptoms of the disease now called leprosy, although Miriam’s in Num. 12:12 seems like a description of present day leprosy. Leprosy is perhaps the least contagious of all contagious diseases and is today generally treated on an outpatient basis. The Biblical disease called leprosy was obviously very contagious, as are a number of skin rashes still with us. See this interesting website: Biblical Leprosy: A Suggested Interpretation R.G. Cochrane, M.D., F.R.C.P. Consultant Leprologist.

Lev. 14:33 concerns leprosy in a house. This seems strange, but they had a good reason for relating the infection in a building to the infection in a person. Both conditions were caused by microorganisms, which were unknown until the invention of the microscope late in the seventeenth century made it possible to see the bacteria and molds. The Hebrew word Tsara-at did not mean disease to those who called that condition Tsara-at. A better translation might be Plague, because in the house this is a reference to mold, which can be a very serious problem for any building even today, so we can relate to the drastic measures of Lev. 14:33-48. It was not until the seventeenth century that man discovered microorganisms, so now we know that there are different causes of those conditions, but several thousand years ago they were simply recognized as plagues.

Life as in Jn. 10:10 refers both to life on Earth and in the hereafter. Jewish commentators refer to Ps. 34:13. What man is he who desires life and loves many days, so he may see good? 14. Keep your tongue from bad things and your lips from speaking guile. 15. Depart from bad things and do good: seek peace and pursue it. The commentators say “life” refers to the World to Come, and “days” refers to man’s years in this world, which are only days by comparison to the eternal life of the next world. Then Moses describes how to have the abundant life in Deut. 30:15. See, I have set before you this day life and good, and death and bad; 16. in that I command you this day to love the LORD* your God, to walk in His ways, and to keep His commandments and His statutes and His judgments, so you will live and multiply. And the LORD* your God will bless you in the land where you go to possess it.

These verses speak of the dual life, having a rewarding life in the here and now, but looking forward to the ultimate goal, eternal life with our heavenly Father. Many people have rewarding lives without having an abundance of material goods. Y’shua says in Lk. 12:15. And He said to them, “You must continually understand and guard yourselves from all covetousness, because someone’s life is not abundant from his possessions.” Then He adds in Lk. 14:33. So in this way every one of you who does not renounce all his own possessions is not able to be My disciple. Live every day to the fullest, knowing that doing His perfect will is the greatest reward of all, both in the here and in the hereafter.

 Location of the Feeding of the Five Thousand is identified in Lk. 9:10 as being near Beit-Tsaida (Bethsaida). There are two towns by that name, one between Capernaum and Tiberias, on the west side of the lake. The other Beit-Tsaida was across the lake, at the northeast corner. That would be about seven miles north and east from Capernaum, but nearly diagonally across the lake from Tiberias.

Rowing from east to west, going to Capernaum from the northeast Beit-Tsaida would be against the strong winds as described in the Gospels, as Y’shua walked on the water (Mk. 6:48ff, Jn. 6:19) to catch up to the disciples. Those strong winds blew them off course so they landed at Gennesaret (Mk. 6:53) instead of the western Bethsaida (Mk. 6:45). Gennesaret is a plain of good farmland northeast of Capernaum.

Logos/Rhema are two Greek synonyms whose meanings are often expanded. Logos is sometimes thought of as word in the context of a statement or maybe even the entire Bible, while Rhema is thought of as a specific word or verse. These meanings have their origin in Greek philosophy, introduced to Christian writing by Augustine in the 5th century. Actually, as used in the Septuagint and the New Testament, the two words are synonyms and the emphasis in Greek is on the sound as the word is spoken. This relationship is seen in the translation of the Septuagint, where rhema is used for the Hebrew ilat, meaning word or speech, and peh, meaning mouth or speech. Logos in the Septuagint is used for daber (da-bear), meaning word, and omer, meaning say, and milah, meaning word or speech. Both logos and rhema are often more appropriately translated message, statement, teaching, or something similar, so when you see the phrase “word of the Lord” and word is not capitalized, message, statement, or teaching would be an appropriate translation. In some cases it is not clear whether the author was referring to a message about the Lord or about Scripture.

Lord of Hosts is the translation of the Greek word Pantokrator. In secular Greek this meant something closer to “almighty” and was used to refer to Hermes or some other false god. The Jewish translators of the Septuagint, the translation from Hebrew to Greek made around 250 BC, translated Ts’vaot as Pantokrator. Ts’vaot means Hosts, referring to the Lord of Hosts, so this translation translates Pantokrator as Hosts. The heavenly hosts make up the army of angelic beings, as seen by the servant of Elisha at Dothan in 2 Ki. 6:15-17. El Shaddai (Almighty God) is considered to be a synonym of Ts’vaot. See Rom. 9:29, Jcb. 5:4,
Rev. 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:6,15; 21:22.

Lord’s Prayer is the prayer Y’shua taught His disciples in Matt. 6:9-13. Some say that this should not be called the Lord’s Prayer, but the Disciples’ Prayer, because it is what Y’shua instructed His disciples to pray. It is appropriate to call it the Lord’s because He taught this prayer, but then whatever the prayer is called should not be our concern, but that we do pray this and do pray it with the positive thrust that Y’shua taught.

Our Father, is an immediate statement of our relationship with the King of the Universe, at once bringing to mind His love and concern for us and our submission to Him, as a small child should be submitted to his father. The Pharisees frequently started their prayers with “Our Father” (Avinu in Hebrew) and cited Hosea 11:1 as the Scriptural basis for that. That verse starts When Israel was a young man I loved him. In Isa. 63:16 and other verses He is called “Our Father.” When they began a prayer with that they went on,

Who is in the heavens, recognizing His role as Creator and King of the Universe. We need in every prayer to acknowledge Him, to praise Him, to give Him all the glory. Prayers of the Pharisees used this phrase, which is Sh’ba shamayim in Hebrew. Ps. 115:16 says, As for the heavens, the heavens are the LORD’s*, but the earth He has given to mankind.

Your name must immediately be made holy is a command for us, those praying, not just to refrain from profaning His name, but also to do those things that make His name holy during this day. Isa. 29:23 But when he sees his children, the work of My hands in his midst, they will sanctify My name and sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and will regard with awe the God of Israel. We sanctify His name by what we do. This is not an option, but every word we speak and every single thing we do must glorify the King of the Universe.

Your kingdom must now come is a call for the reigning Messiah to begin His rule on earth. Y’shua said that we are to know that the kingdom has come upon us when He casts out demons by a finger of God. (Lk. 11:20) He also said ..the Kingdom of God is within you. (Lk. 17:21) Therefore this is another command for us to be aggressive about living in the Kingdom of God right here, right now. That does not mean that this is all we will ever see of the Kingdom, but He is telling us to believe that we have the authority He gave us, and He is telling us to use that authority. We have barely grasped the principles of spiritual warfare and have a long way to go to live as the overcomers that we should be. This agrees with Jewish thought as Rabbi Eliezer Ben-Yehuda wrote August 11, 2000, “We cannot accept the lowest common denominator, for it hits rock bottom. We are challenged and called to achieve a world that is loftier and more spiritual, to rise and to raise, to elevate and establish His kingdom, right here, right now. Nothing less will do – nothing less will insure our survival.”

Your will must immediately be done, also on earth as in heaven. Who is here at this time to do His will? Is it not each one of us? This is not an appeal for the LORD* to do things for us, but for us to be motivated to do absolutely everything that He would want us to do. We are His agents on earth, the ones through whom He works. Once again we are not asking this of God, but stating to Him that we have to be determined to do all we can to walk in His perfect will. It is up to each one of us to be all we can, in every relationship, in every way.

This first half of the prayer is entirely for us to do. Each of these lines is an individual, not a corporate responsibility, so Y’shua gave us this prayer to strengthen each believer. As you do these things, incorporating the worship and the doing of His will into your personal walk with God, you lay the ground work for the LORD* to be able to do the things that are to be done on your behalf in the second half of the prayer.

You must immediately give to us (the) bread necessary today for our existence. The word translated “necessary for our existence” seems to have been coined by the early evangelists and in Scripture is used only here and in Luke 11. Some scholars translate it “daily,” others “tomorrow” and others as “necessary for our existence.” But the real thrust of this request is the command, a statement of our covenant relationship with our heavenly Father, coming as a small child to say, “Daddy, You have to..” Y’shua was teaching us to speak boldly with our heavenly Father, the King of the Universe.

You must immediately forgive our sins as we have already completed forgiving everyone of every little thing each has done to me. This accurately brings out that we cannot ask God to forgive our very real sins until we first forgive everyone of every little thing that has irritated us. This is an individual requirement, even though it is written in the plural. No one can do this for someone else. Each believer must forgive everyone of every little thing and of every big thing. Once we have finished totally forgiving everyone of everything, then we are to boldly ask that we be forgiven all our sins. See Matt. 5:7.

And do not lead us into temptation, but You must continually rescue us from the evil one. The word translated lead means to bring or to carry in. The word translated temptation means test, trial, or temptation. When we go through difficult times we often think that God is testing us, and sometimes He is. A test is for the one being tested to prove to himself that he can do what is required. God already knows what he will do. Many times though He has given us an assignment, because we have been called into service, not into rest and relaxation. We complain about our circumstances when we should be charged up like a Special Forces soldier on being given a tough assignment. We need to be as thoroughly trained for spiritual warfare as a Special Forces soldier is for modern warfare. God does not tempt us, but He does test us, as Y’shua tested Philip when He asked Philip where he could buy bread to feed the crowd
(Jn. 6:6). Not to abort an assignment or wheedle our way out of a test, but to get out of a true satanic attack, we are to address God in the imperative, saying, “You must rescue me from the evil one!”

In the Lord’s Prayer Y’shua taught us first of all to acknowledge the Father as the Creator, the King of the Universe, the One to Whom we owe everything and to Whom we submit everything we have. When that is done we are to express our need in the same way a two year old addresses a parent, saying, “You have to do this for me!” He does supply all our needs, including deliverance from all evil spirits, sickness, poverty, relationships with others, virtually every need. While this prayer is in the plural “we,” it brings out the need for individual relationship. No one can make up for your lack of faith or lack of asking. Y’shua said, And I say to you, You must continually ask and it will be given to you, you must continually seek and you will find, you must continually knock and it will be opened to you: for everyone who asks takes and the one who seeks finds and for the one who knocks it will be opened. And which of you if a son will ask
his father for a fish will he then give him a serpent instead of a fish? Or also,
if he will ask for an egg, will he give a scorpion to him? If therefore you, who
are evil yourselves, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more the Father from heaven will give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him.

(Lk. 11:9-13) This is one example of this principle that is in each Gospel. However, we should not judge the faith of another saint when we see a saint fail in some way, or call him unspiritual because of a failure to overcome. After all, Paul had his thorn in the flesh and we certainly cannot call him unspiritual. Remember also that neither Ezekiel nor his wife had shown sin or lack of faith when the Lord took her.

[1]        See Mammon elsewhere in Glossary.


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